birderfrommaricopa.com

Tommy J. DeBardeleben

Birds of Greenlee County

Modified on January 2018 by Tommy DeBardeleben.  265 species.

This is a list of birds that have been known to occur in Greenlee County.  Most of this list is on eBird, but there are some birds that have been discovered that haven't made in onto eBird.  Other sources that helped me compile this list are the Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas by Troy Corman and Cathryn Wise-Gervais as well as field trip reports by Arizona Field Ornithologists.  See the Works Cited section at the bottom of this page for more information.

About this list:  As stated throughout this project, Greenlee County is immensely under-birded.  The bird life within this county is poorly known.  Birders participating in birding this county are providing valuable knowledge and data for a county that needs better understanding.  The information given on this list is probably far from accurate.  What this list is is simply a compilation of what has been observed in Greenlee County.  Descriptions are written for what I feel is a decent guess at what each bird's status could possibly be in the county.  Some of the birds I probably have down correctly, and there are many others who remain to need knowledge gained about them.  What this list is is what's been recorded in Greenlee County, and what each bird's status could possibly be.  Overall, the status of species is all a fun guess right now.  There are many gaps to fill in learning about the bird life of this small but very diverse county.  I'm not an expert or authority on bird status, not even close, but I hope this may spark in interest in birders so that we may all team up and figure out more about the birds in this county!

Using the list:

Birding Areas:  The following numbers for each birding area will correspond to the birding areas of the section on this online guide,  Greenlee County Birding Areas.

1.  Duncan and Franklin Area

2.  Highway 78 and Big Lue Mountains Area

3.  Clifton and Morenci Area

4.  Coronado Trail (Highway 191) Area

5.  White Mountains Area

 

Birding Seasons:  Every season and it's months of each season.

Spring:  March, April, May

Summer:  June, July, August

Fall:  September, October, November

Winter:  December, January, February

 

Abundance Status:  This describes status of each bird, whether it's common, uncommon, rare, accidental, etc.  In Greenlee County the word "probably" is used a lot because of our high lack of complete understanding of what really happens with the bird life throughout the year.  If Greenlee County is birded more, hopefully that understanding will increase.

Very Common:  This could also be described as abundant.  Birds that will be present in high numbers in the habitats they inhabit.

Common:  Birds that are seen with ease on every birding trip if visiting the right habitats.

Fairly common:  Birds that are seen most of the time if birding in the right habitats and knowing where to look for that specific bird.

Uncommon:  Birds that are present in the area most of the time, but because they aren't present in high numbers, they can be a hit or miss species.

Rare:  Birds that are present in very low numbers throughout the year in Greenlee County, or birds that may be resident but are very elusive and hard to find.  One example is a Yellow-bellied Sapsucker in winter.  It is a rare winter visitor in small numbers statewide in Arizona.  By birding in appropriate habitat that this sapsucker visits in winter, some are likely to be discovered with the more locations are birded.  Another example of rare is a resident bird that is present in smaller numbers and is hard to find throughout the year.  An good bird to use as an example is Dusky Grouse, which is found in the spruce, fir, pine, and aspen forests in the White Mountains.  Finding a grouse usually requires a lot of patience, time, and effort.

Casual:  Birds that show up every few years at best in an area.  In this list, casual is only used as "probably casual".  For example, there are two records of Golden-crowned Sparrow in Greenlee County: one from 2007 and the other in 2017.  There are likely more records, as White-crowned Sparrow flocks are abundant in fall and winter in many of the lowland locations, but Golden-crowned Sparrow may very well not be an annual occurance. 

Accidental:  Birds that are very unexpected and are never expected to show up.  Accidental birds are ones that have a few records for a region in a long period of time.  An example is three records of a bird over a time span of fifty years.  This checklist has "probably accidental" on it a few times, due to the fact that Greenlee County is so under-birded and it's hard to know for sure what is for sure.

Breeding Birds:  A bold B will be in parenthesis beside each bird if it nests or probably nests or has nested in Greenlee County.  This B is highly generic for this list, as some of the birds represented with this label are only a possibility for breeding.

 

 

Birds of Greenlee County

 

 

Geese, Ducks, and Swans

-Snow Goose:  Probably an uncommon to rare winter visitor.  Area 1.  Agricultural fields.

-Greater White-fronted Goose:  Probably a rare winter visitor.  Area 1.  Agricultural fields.  An individual was found by Mark Stevenson and Molly Pollock at Duncan in January and February of 2010.

-Canada Goose:  Probably uncommon in summer in White Mountains, Area 5.  Probably an uncommon winter visitor and migrant in Area 1. 

-Wood Duck:  Probably an uncommon to rare winter visitor.  Area 1.  Gila River.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County.

-Blue-winged Teal:  Probably an uncommon to rare migrant, winter visitor.  Ponds and rivers throughout Greenlee County.

-Cinnamon Teal:  Probably an uncommon to rare migrant, winter visitor.  Ponds and rivers throughout Greenlee County.

-Northern Shoveler:  Probably a fairly common winter visitor.  Ponds and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County. 

-Gadwall:  Probably a fairly common winter visitor.  Ponds and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County. 

-American Wigeon:  Probably a fairly common winter visitor.  Ponds and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County. 

-Mallard (B):  Common throughout year.  Flooded agricultural fields and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably seen occasionally at other limited aquatic habitats within Greenlee County.

-Northern Pintail:  Probably an uncommon winter visitor.  Ponds and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County. 

-Green-winged Teal:  Probably a fairly common winter visitor.  Ponds and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County. 

-Redhead:  Probably uncommon to rare in ponds and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County.

-Ring-necked Duck:  Probably an uncommon winter visitor.  Ponds and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County. 

-Lesser Scaup:  Probably an uncommon to rare winter visitor.  Ponds and Gila River in Area 1.  Probably hard to find elsewhere in Greenlee County. 

-Bufflehead:  Probably a rare winter visitor in Greenlee County.  Has been recorded at ponds within the Morenci Mine in Area 2 on 25 February by Cathy Spahn.

-Hooded Merganser:  Probably a rare winter visitor in Greenlee County.  Has been recorded at ponds within the Morenci Mine in Area 2 on 25 February 2010 Cathy Spahn.

-Common Merganser (B):  Probably uncommon throughout the year in Greenlee County along rivers and at ponds.  Has bred along rivers as discovered by surveyors during the Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas project.

-Ruddy Duck:  Probably a rare fall and winter visitor in Greenlee County.  Has been recorded in a pond at Duncan (Area 1) by Deborah Hileman.

Turkey, Quail, and Grouse

-Scaled Quail (B):  Resident bird that is probably locally uncommon in semi-desert grassland south of Duncan in Area 1 throughout the year.

-Gambel's Quail (B):  Very common resident in desert, urban, agricultural, and chaparral habitats in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

-Montezuma Quail (B):  Locally uncommon in mid to high elevations with taller grass in midst of oak and juniper slopes, grassy areas within rocky bluffs, as well as forested drainages that have mixes of pine, oak, and fir with surrounding grassy and rocky habitat.  Areas 2, 4, and 5. 

-Dusky Grouse (B):  Rare resident, found in higher elevation forests that have a mix of spruce, fir, pine, and aspen.  Area 5.  Look for this bird in areas of heavy fallen timber in midst of thick forest, as well as in thick stands of aspen.

-Wild Turkey (B):  Fairly common resident in high elevations in Greenlee County in Areas 4 and 5.  Probably locally rare in other areas of the county in riparian areas. 

-Ring-necked Pheasant:  Status probably uncertain.  Was detected in Duncan (Area 1) in agricultural fields during the Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas Project as being possibly established as a breeder.  Private properties in agricultural fields in Area 1 make it difficult to investigate further with this species.  An individual was seen in Duncan (Area 1) on 16 July 2010 by Mark Stevenson and Molly Pollock.

Grebes and Cormorants

-Pied-billed Grebe:  Probably locally rare in Greenlee County, due to a lack of aquatic habitat that this bird requires.  There are a few eBird records.

-Western Grebe:  Probably locally rare in Greenlee County, due to a lack of aquatic habitat that this bird requires.  There is an eBird record from a pond in Morenci on 25 February 2010 by Cathy Spahn.

-Neotropic Cormorant:  One record, from the Franklin Pond on the east side of US 70, south of Duncan, Area 1, found by Terry Rosenmeier and Karen Kludge on 1 May 2017.  Probably rare to casual, due to the lack of aquatic habitat in Greenlee County that this bird needs.  Not far west of Greenlee County is the Dankworth Pond and Roper Lake State Park in Graham County, where Neotropic Cormorants are very common.

Herons and Ibis

-American Bittern:  Probably accidental in Greenlee County, due to strong lack of aquatic habitat primarily with tall reeds that this species needs.  An individual was found by Deborah Hileman on 12 October 2012 in Duncan, Area 1, and was described very well. 

-Great Blue Heron (B):  Probably fairly common throughout Greenlee County along rivers, larger creeks, ponds, and agricultural fields.

-Great Egret:  Probably rare in Greenlee County due to a lack of aquatic habitats.  May very well be found during migrations in agricultural fields, along rivers, and ponds in Area 1.

-Snowy Egret:  Probably rare in Greenlee County due to a lack of aquatic habitats.  May very well be found during migrations in agricultural fields, along rivers, and ponds in Area 1.

-Cattle Egret:  Probably uncommon to rare in Greenlee County.  Area 1 holds a lot of suitable habitat for this species with farms and agricultural fields.  A lot of cattle are present in this area.

-Green Heron:  Probably rare in Greenlee County due to a lack of aquatic habitats.  Area 1 holds the best potential to find this species alongside places like the Franklin Pond on the east side of US 70.

-Black-crowned Night-Heron:  Probably rare in Greenlee County due to a lack of aquatic habitats.  Area 1 holds the best potential to find this species alongside places like the Franklin Pond on the east side of US 70.

-White-faced Ibis:  Probably uncommon in Greenlee County during spring and fall migration time frames in the agricultural areas (especially if flooded) in Area 1. 

Vultures, Kites, Osprey, Eagles, and Hawks

-Turkey Vulture (B):  Common throughout Greenlee County in spring through late fall.  Probably rare in winter.

-Osprey (B):  Probably rare throughout Greenlee County due to a lack of aquatic habitats the species requires.  Look for it along larger rivers.  During the summer, the Black and Blue Rivers in the White Mountains, Area 5, will hold the best chance for seeing this bird.

-White-tailed Kite:  Probably very rare in Greenlee County, where it probably shows up occasionally at best.  There are a few records in eBird, both in Area 1 at Duncan:  an individual at Duncan Birding Trail on 19 February 2016 found by Homer Hansen, and a pair of two found north of Duncan by Deborah Hileman on 21 September 2016.

-Golden Eagle (B):  Probably locally uncommon to rare in canyons, rocky bluffs, and higher elevation forests within Greenlee County.  The species occasionally and much more rarely wanders into lower elevations, especially during winter.  Areas 2, 3, 4, and 5, all have locations that would be good for searching for Golden Eagle.

-Mississippi Kite (B):  Locally rare in Area 1 during spring and summer.  Look along the Gila River on the Duncan Birding Trail, as well as throughout the agricultural areas near the Gila River.

-Northern Harrier:  Probably an uncommon late fall and winter visitor in Greenlee County, especially in open areas with grassland and agricultural fields.

-Sharp-shinned Hawk (B):  Probably a fairly common migrant and winter visitor throughout Greenlee County.  Probably an uncommon breeder in the higher elevations of Area 5, the White Mountains.

-Cooper's Hawk (B):  Fairly common throughout Greenlee County as a resident, migrant, and winter visitor.

-Northern Goshawk (B):  Locally uncommon to rare resident in the higher elevations of Greenlee County in Areas 2, 4, and 5, where it breeds.  It may be found in a variety of forest types, from pine and oak forest such as the Big Lue Mountains in Area 2, or in the highest elevations that contain a mix of pine, spruce, and fir in the White Mountains, Area 5.

-Bald Eagle:  Probably very rare in Greenlee County due to a lack of sufficient aquatic habitat.  Most likely to be found in the agricultural areas along the Gila River in Area 1.  One eBird record from Duncan from the Simpson Hotel (Area 1) on 9 April 2017 by Deborah Mendelsohn. 

-Common Black Hawk (B):  Uncommon in Greenlee County along riparian corridors of creeks and rivers during spring and summer.

-Gray Hawk (B):  Locally rare in Area 1 during spring and summer.  Look for it in the riparian habitat along the Gila River.

-Swainson's Hawk (B):  Probably fairly common as a breeding bird in Area 1 during spring and summer.  May have abundant numbers during spring and fall migration in the many agricultural fields near Duncan and throughout Area 1.

-Zone-tailed Hawk (B):  Probably uncommon in Greenlee County throughout a variety of habitats that include riparian corridors along rivers and creeks, rocky canyons and bluffs, and pine and oak forest.

-Red-tailed Hawk (B):  Common resident, migrant, and winter visitor in all habitats throughout Greenlee County.

-Ferruginous Hawk:  Probably a rare migrant and winter visitor in Greenlee County.  Ideal places to look are within the agricultural fields in Area 1, and also in grasslands in the northern part of the county.

Rails, Coots, and Cranes

-American Coot:  Probably uncommon in Greenlee County in any ponds that may be found.  The pond in Franklin on the east side of US 70 seems to be a reliable location.

-Sandhill Crane:  Very common in late fall and throughout winter in large numbers in Area 1 in agricultural fields and farm land. 

Shorebirds

-Killdeer (B):  Common in Area 1, probably uncommon elsewhere.  Look along river and pond edges and agricultural fields.

-Upland Sandpiper:  1 record from Area 1 in Franklin of a single bird.  This bird was seen in flooded agricutural fields along Railroad Wash Road.  It was found on 9 July 2016 by Mark Stevenson, Molly Pollock, Dave Stejskal, and Andrew Core.  Probably accidental in Greenlee County, but with the limited knowledge of migrant species within the county, there may very well be more records if Greenlee was birded more often.

-Long-billed Curlew:  One eBird record from Franklin, 9 July 2016 by Mark Stevenson, Molly Pollock, Dave Stejskal, and Andrew Core.  This species is probably rare (maybe uncommon) in agricultural fields in Area 1, especially if those fields are flooded, in spring, summer, and fall.

-Greater Yellowlegs:  One record in Area 1, which was north of Duncan.  It was found on an Arizona Field Ornithologists field trip led by Troy Corman, Marceline Vandewater, and Carol Beardmore on 17 February 2007 along the Gila River.  If Greenlee was birded more and more ponds could be accessed that are on private property, this species may be uncommon at the least.

-Western Sandpiper:  One eBird record from Area 1 in Franklin, 9 July 2016, by Mark Stevenson, Molly Pollock, Dave Stejskal, and Andrew Core.  Migration periods will likely yield this species if ponds on private properties can be accessed.  Otherwise, it will be difficult to know this species' status.  It is usually a common migrant in Arizona along ponds and shorelines of lakes, etc.

-Wilson's Snipe:  Probably uncommon in Greenlee County during spring, fall, and winter.  Look for it in moist edges of open areas that have cover nearby, such as the edges of agricutural fields or taller vegetation along rivers.

-Spotted Sandpiper (B):  Was found on the Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas Project along rivers and creeks in Greenlee County, which is it's suitable breeding habitat, especially adjacent to higher elevations.  The Black and Blue Rivers would be great areas to look for this species to be breeding.  Otherwise, it is probably uncommon in Greenlee County during other times of the year on rivers and creeks.

Pigeons and Doves

-Rock Pigeon (B):  Uncommon to rare in urban and town areas throughout the county.  Most likely to be found in neighborhoods of Morenci and Clifton.

-Band-tailed Pigeon (B):  Fairly common during spring and summer in high elevation forests in Areas 4 and 5.

-Eurasian Collared-Dove (B):  Very common in Areas 1 and 3 in urban and town areas.

-Inca Dove (B):  Uncommon and local in Areas 1 and 3 in urban and town areas, especially at edges of brushy and grassy habitats.

-Common Ground-Dove:  Rare in Greenlee County, most likely to be found in Area 1 if present.  Look along agricultural and farm land in brushy habitats.  A record came from 21 Feb 2009 of two of these birds found on an Arizona Field Ornithologists expedition which participants were Eric Hough, Troy Corman, Justin Jones, Magill Weber, Jake Mohlmann, and John Yerger. 

-White-winged Dove (B):  Very common spring through fall, including good numbers of a wintering population in Area 1.  White-winged Doves may be found in Areas 1, 2, 3, and some of the lower elevations of 4.

-Mourning Dove (B):  Very common throughout Greenlee County during the year, absent from the highest elevations in winter.

Cuckoos

-Greater Roadrunner (B):  Fairly common resident in a variety of habitats throughout Greenlee County, except for higher elevation forests starting with pine and oak and increasing in elevation.

-Yellow-billed Cuckoo (B):  Uncommon breeder primarily along willow and cottonwood riparian corridors of rivers and creeks June through September.  A highly migratory species that is here for a very short time. 

Owls:  Barn and Typical

-Barn Owl (B):  Probably an uncommon resident along cottonwood and riparian corridors along rivers and creeks, as well as habitats near open agricultural fields, where it spends a lot of time hunting.  Area 1 holds the best chance to find this owl.

-Flammulated Owl (B):  Probably fairly common in Greenlee County in pine and oak forest, drainages with pine and oak, and higher elevation pine and fir forests with aspen.  Flammulated Owls are highly migratory and are usually in Arizona on breeding grounds April through September before starting their migration south.  Look for these owls in the Big Lue Mountains of Area 2 (Eric Hough heard one in 2014), as well as throughout Areas 4 and 5 where conifer and oak habitat is present.

-Western Screech-Owl (B):  Probably a fairly common resident in many habitats in Greenlee County, except for high elevation forests.  Lower riparian habitats in Area 1 or drainages in midst of deserts that have taller vegetation, would be the better places to look.

-Great Horned Owl (B):  A common resident of most habitats within Greenlee County.

-Northern Pygmy-Owl (B):  Uncommon resident of a variety of high elevation forests within Greenlee County in Areas 4 and 5.  It is unknown if Northern Pygmy-Owls are in the Big Lue Mountains of Area 2.  Northern Pygmy-Owl has two subspecies in Arizona that may be separate species.  The ones that have been recorded in Greenlee County have been the Rocky Mountain race as opposed to the Mountain race further south into southeastern Arizona. 

-Elf Owl (B):  Probably locally common in spring in summer in riparian areas, canyons, and pine and oak woodland.  Elf Owls have been found in Areas 2, 3, and 4.  They were discovered in May of 2014 by Eric Hough in the Big Lue Mountains in pine, oak, and juniper woodlands at an elevation of roughly 6000', the highest in elevation they have been detected at in Arizona.  Troy Corman found a few of them in the Juan Miller Campgrounds of Area 4 slightly lower in elevation than in the Big Lues.  Lower Eagle Creek is a good area to look for them also. 

-Spotted Owl (B):  Locally rare resident in high elevation forests and canyons of Areas 4 and 5.  Spotted Owls can be found in forested drainages and canyons that have a mix of pine, fir, and oak, almost always with shady cover to roost in.  They can also be found in higher dense forests with a mix of spruce, fir and pine.  Spotted Owls in Arizona belong to the "Mexican" race, which is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. 

-Long-eared Owl (B):  Probably a rare resident in different habitats throughout Greenlee County, based on food sources.  Long-eared Owls are always found in dense tangles of trees branches or roots if one is lucky enough to find a day roost.  One example of habitat selection would be thick conifer forests along meadow or field edges, where Long-eared Owls have a strong hunting preference.  This owl was detected in the White Mountain region, Area 5, in 2009 by Andrew Core and in 2010 by Molly Pollock and Mark Stevenson.

-Northern Saw-whet Owl (B):  Probably an uncommon to fairly common resident of higher elevation forests of spruce, fir, pine, and aspen.  Saw-whet Owls prefer a variety of forest types, and may occasionally be found in lower pine and oak forests with elevations between 7-6,000'.  These small owls are most vocal from February through April, where most of the habitat they are found in has snow or freezing temperatures, which creates a lot of difficulty for access and getting the correct numbers for this species.

Nighthawks and Nightjars

-Lesser Nighthawk (B):  Common in spring and summer in Area 1 over open areas at dawn and dusk. 

-Common Nighthawk (B):  Probably fairly common in high elevations of Areas 4 and 5 in open habitats such as forest clearings, meadows, and grasslands.  Look and listen for Common Nighthawks at dusk.

-Common Poorwill (B):  Fairly common in spring and summer along slopes at various habitats and elevations such as deserts, riparian corridors, canyons, chaparral and juniper slopes, and along drainages that have pine and oak.  Listen for Common Poorwills at dusk and throughout nights.

-Mexican Whip-poor-will (B):  Probably locally uncommon.  Listen for Mexican Whip-poor-wills in the nocturnal times of day in spring and summer in pine and oak woodlands, particularly where there are drainages or slopes within the forest. 

Swifts

-White-throated Swift (B):  Locally common resident in areas with tall rocks, cliffs, and canyons.  Good areas to look for them are the Blackjack Overlook (Area 2), Lower Eagle Creek (Area 3), and along Red Hill Road (Area 5). 

-Vaux's Swift:  Probably a rare migrant in Greenlee County, as this species is thought to be rare in the very eastern section of Arizona north to south.  There is an eBird record from Duncan (Area 1) by William Sutton on 25 September 2011.

Hummingbirds

-Rivoli's Hummingbird:  Probably a rare summer visitor and possible breeder.  A female was discovered at the Hannagan Meadow Lodge coming to feeders (Area 5) on 8 July 2009 by Troy Corman and another was discovered at feeders in Blackjack Campground on 17 May 2014 by Eric Hough, Muriel Neddermeyer, and Tim Marquardt on an Arizona Field Ornithologists expedition.  Rivoli's Hummingbirds have also been detected further north into the White Mountains in Apache County almost annually at several different locations.

-Black-chinned Hummingbird (B):  Fairly common in spring in summer in a variety of habitats in the county, with riparian habitats being the best place to find the species.  Deserts and pine and oak woodlands host this hummingbird too.

-Anna's Hummingbird (B):  Probably a uncommon or rare resident in deserts and riparian areas.  Very irregularly encountered in Greenlee County.

-Costa's Hummingbird (B):  Probably rare in Greenlee County at different times of year.  Only a few records on eBird.  Desert areas would be the best place to look, probably in the areas south of Duncan.

-Broad-tailed Hummingbird (B):  Common in spring and summer in most high elevation forests from 6000' and up to above 9000'. 

-Rufous Hummingbird:  Probably common to fairly common in migrations, especially in July in August in higher forested elevations in the county.  The White Mountains (Area 5) are a great place to look for this species, where they can be very numerous.

-Calliope Hummingbird:  Probably an uncommon migrant, especially during fall migration in July through early September in the White Mountain region (Area 5) in higher elevations.  This species can turn up in many habitats and elevations during it's migration, but is most often encounted at feeders and high elevaton meadows within high coniferous forest habitats.  Hannagan Meadow Lodge and it's hummingbird feeders have hosted Calliope Hummingbirds over the years.  Several eBird observations during this time frame suggest this species as being present in smaller numbers.

-Broad-billed Hummingbird (B):  Status uncertain for this hummingbird in Greenlee County, but it's probably a local breeder in Gila Box NCA and Lower Eagle Creek.  Two eBird records for Greenlee County fall within Lower Eagle Creek in summer:  an adult male found by Bryon Lichthenhan on 13 June 2015 and a female found by Tommy DeBardeleben on 14 July 2017.  Broad-billed Hummingbirds have been found in nearby Graham County locations also.

-Lucifer Hummingbird:  There was an observation of a Lucifer Hummingbird in the foothills of the Peloncillo Mountains during surveys for the Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas.  It may or may not have been in Greenlee County as it was almost on the border of Graham and Greenlee Counties.  (Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas page for Lucifer Hummingbird by Troy Corman, pp 254-255)

Kingfishers

-Belted Kingfisher (B):  Probably an uncommon breeding bird in the spring and summer at rivers and creeks of higher elevations within the White Mountains (Area 5).  Probably uncommon as a migrant and winter visitor elsewhere in Greenlee County during the year at creeks and rivers.

Woodpeckers

-Lewis's Woodpecker (B):  Probably locally uncommon to rare in Greenlee County.  The Upper Blue River (Area 5) holds good breeding habitat with tall cottonwoods and snags in midst of higher elevations.  Probably uncommon to rare in migration and winter when the species makes irregular movements throughout it's range.

-Acorn Woodpecker (B):  Common resident in mixed pine and oak forests in the county in Areas 2, 4, and 5.

-Gila Woodpecker (B):  Common resident in deserts and lower riparian areas below 4000' in Areas 1 and 3.

-Williamson's Sapsucker (B):  Uncommon in spring and summer in White Mountains (Area 5) and probably the northern part of Area 4.  Probably uncommon to rare in winter at lower pine and oak forests within Areas 2 and 4.

-Yellow-bellied Sapsucker:  This species is a rare fall and winter visitor throughout Arizona, where plenty of birds are found throughout Arizona but in small numbers.  Greenlee County probably holds similar results to the rest of Arizona if it was birded more often.  There are two eBird records of Yellow-bellied Sapsucker in Greenlee County:  one at Blackjack Campground on 12 March 2012 by Phillip Kline and another at Lower Eagle Creek on 18 February 2017 by Joshua Smith, Caleb Strand, and Tommy DeBardeleben. 

-Red-naped Sapsucker (B):  Probably fairly common to uncommon in higher elevations of the White Mountains (Area 5) and the northern part of Area 4.  Look for Red-naped Sapsucker in a variety of wooded areas, especially along riparian trees.  Fairly common to uncommon in fall and winter in a variety of wooded areas, especially in cottonwood and willow riparian corridors.

-Ladder-backed Woodpecker (B):  Common resident in deserts and lower riparian habitats below 4,000'.

-Downy Woodpecker (B):  Probably uncommon local resident in the higher elevations of the White Mountains (Area 5).  Look for Downy Woodpeckers in coniferous forests where there are stands of aspen.  This species will move down into lower elevations in winter, most often pine and oak forests but also in lower riparian forests below 4,000'.

-Hairy Woopecker (B):  Common resident of higher elevation conifer and oak forests in a variety of elevatons that range from 6000' to over 9000'.  Like Downy Woodpecker, this bird may move into lower elevations irregularly during some years.

-American Three-toed Woodpecker (B):  Seems to be an uncommon and local resident in the White Mountains (Area 5).  Listen for it's drumming.  Good places to look include the Hannagan Meadow Area as well as Aker Lake and KP Cienega Campground.  Look in areas that have a combination of both live and burned forest, as American Three-toed Woodpeckers benifit well from burned forests. 

-Northern Flicker (B):  Very common in spring and summer in White Mountains (Area 5) and probably common in spring and summer in Area 2 and 4's higher elevations.  Very common in fall and winter throughout Greenlee County in a variety of habitats.

Falcons

-American Kestrel (B):  Common resident throughout Greenlee County in open areas within a variety of habitats and elevations from urban areas to high mountain meadows within coniferous forest.

-Merlin:  Probably an uncommon to rare winter visitor in a variety of habitats, especially in open areas such as agricultural fields. 

-Peregrine Falcon (B):  Uncommon and local as a breeder throughout Arizona and Greenlee County.  This falcon favors high walls and cliffs of canyons and mountains for breeding, and Greenlee County has a lot of habitat for Peregrines.  In fall and winter, look for Peregrines along agricultural fields along with other raptors. 

-Prairie Falcon (B):  Probably rare and local in Greenlee County as a breeder.  This species is often very scarce throughout it's range.  Cliffs and canyon walls overlooking vast areas are the preferred habitat of this falcon.  In fall and winter, this species may be observed more often in agricultural fields and other open areas when raptors are present in good numbers.

Tyrant Flycatchers

-Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet (B):  Status highly uncertain in Greenlee County, but there are several eBird records:  one bird at Lower Eagle Creek on 14 June 2015 by Bryon Lichtenhen, one at Gila Box NCA via Old Safford Bridge on 12 March 2012 by Phillip Kline, and two birds at the same Gila Box NCA via Old Safford Bridge location on 16 July 2010 by Molly Pollock and Mark Stevenson.  Mesquite woodlands within cottonwood and willow riparian stands are the best bets when looking for Tyrannulets.  This bird is probably a scarce and local breeder.

-Olive-sided Flycatcher (B):  Uncommon to fairly common in spring and summer in the White Mountains (Area 5) in coniferous forests, especially in the higher spruce, fir, and pine forests.  Uncommon spring and fall migrant in different habitats throughout Greenlee County.

-Greater Pewee (B):  Seems to be uncommon in mixed pine and oak forests in Areas 2, 4, and 5 in spring and summer.  Good places to look are Blackjack Campground (Area 2) and the Upper Blue River north of Red Hill Crossing Road (Area 5). 

-Western Wood-Pewee (B):  Common in spring and summer in higher elevation forests from 6-9,000' in Areas 2, 4, and 5.  Local elsewhere in spring and summer.  Common spring and fall migrant in a variety of habitats. 

-Willow Flycatcher (B):  Uncommon spring and fall migrant along riparian corridors.  The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher may very well breed along creeks and rivers in Greenlee County.

-Hammond's Flycatcher:  Probably a fairly common spring and fall migrant, especially in higher elevation forests.  This species is rare but regular in winter within riparian corridors in the southern half of Arizona, the same may apply to Greenlee County.

-Gray Flycatcher (B):  Probably uncommon in spring and summer, look for it in areas of juniper and scrub oak in Areas 2, 4, and 5.  Probably uncommon in spring and fall migrations as well as winter, where it prefers stands of mesquite. 

-Dusky Flycatcher (B):  Possibly a local breeder along higher elevaton rivers in the White Mountains (Area 5) where there are willow thickets and other riparian vegetation along creeks.  Uncommon spring and fall migrant throughout the county, especially in higher elevations.

-Pacific-slope Flycatcher:  Probably an uncommon migrant in spring and fall in lower elevations within riparian woodlands.  There are two eBird records:  two birds at Duncan Birding Trail on 18 May 2014 by Eric Hough, and one bird at Lower Eagle Creek 16 April 2016 by Brian Walsh.

-Cordilleran Flycatcher (B):  Common in late spring and summer in Greenlee County's high elevations in Areas 4 and 5.  Look in a variety of coniferous forest areas for this bird, especially in more shady spots and drainages.

-Black Phoebe (B):  Farily common in spring and summer along riparian areas in high elevations of Area 5.  Common resident along riparian habitats of rivers and creeks in lower elevations of Areas 1 and 3. 

-Eastern Phoebe:  Probably a rare migrant and winter visitor based on a statewide Arizona status.  One record in Greenlee County on 17 February 2007 north of Duncan along the Gila River (Area 1) on an Arizona Field Ornithologist expedition with Troy Corman, Marceline Vandewater, and Carol Beardmore.

-Say's Phoebe (B):  Common resident in a variety open areas throughout the year in Greenlee County's lower elevations.  Fairly common in spring and summer in open areas of high elevations such as the White Mountains (Area 5).

-Vermilion Flycatcher (B):  Probably fairly common to common resident in open areas along field edges, farms, and riparian corridors within Areas 1 and 3.

-Dusky-capped Flycatcher (B):  Locally rare in spring and summer in forests and canyons with mixes of pine, oak, and sycamore.  Records come from three locations:  Granville Campground, Juan Miller Campgrounds, and the Upper Blue River via Upper Blue Campground.  Granville Campground had a single bird on 2 May 2017 by Karen Kluge and Terry Rosenmeier, and then 2 birds on 4 May 2017, also by Karen Kluge and Terry Rosenmeier.  Juan Miller Campgrounds has been the best location for them with records from 2 August 2009 of two birds by Andrew Core, a single bird on 26 April 2016 by Janine McCabe, and two birds by Karen Kluge and Terry Rosenmeier on 2 and 4 May 2017.  Much further north and into the White Mountain region was a sighting of two birds on 12 May 2017 by Gordon Karre and Tommy DeBardeleben.

-Ash-throated Flycatcher (B):  Common in spring and summer in a variety of habitats in all birding areas from desert up to pine and oak forest.

-Brown-crested Flycatcher (B):  Common in spring and summer in riparian woodlands, especially in Areas 1 and 3.

-Cassin's Kingbird (B):  Fairly common to common in spring and summer in a variety of elevations roughly from 3500' to 7000'.  Riparian woodlands, clearings and open areas, and pinyon-juniper habitats are some of the best places to look.

-Western Kingbird (B):  Probably fairly common to oommon in open fields and grasslands in spring and summer adjacent to most habitats/elevations in Greenlee County

Becards

-Rose-throated Becard:  Probably accidental.  One record from the junction of the Blue and San Francisco Rivers on 22 July 1983 by Scott Mills.

Shrikes

-Loggerhead Shrike (B):  Uncommon resident in desert scrub, open areas, field edges, pinyon-juniper and chaparral zones, probably mostly in the southern half of Greenlee County.

Vireos

-Bell's Vireo (B):  Common in spring and summer along riparian corridors with surrounding mesquite and dense vegetation in Areas 1, 3, and lower elevations of 4.

-Gray Vireo (B):  Probably uncommon in spring and summer along slopes that contain juniper and pinyon-pine in midst of chaparral vegetation.  Such habitat is found in Areas 2, 3, and 4.  Lower Eagle Creek Road is a good bet for trying for Gray Vireos.

-Hutton's Vireo (B):  Probably an uncommon resident in oak forest as well as mixed pine and oak forests.  Some move into lower elevations in fall and winter.

-Cassin's Vireo:  Probably an uncommon migrant in a variety of habitats throughout Greenlee County.

-Plumbeous Vireo (B):  Fairly common in spring and summer in pine and oak forests of Areas 2, 4, and 5.  Probably fairly common spring and fall migrant, and uncommon to rare winter visitor in lower riparian forests.

-Warbling Vireo (B):  Fairly common in spring and summer in high elevation forests of Areas 4 and 5 where aspen is in the mix of coniferous woodlands.  Common spring and fall migrant in a variety of habitats.

Jays, Crows, and Ravens

-Gray Jay (B):  Probably an occasional visitor at best in the Hannagan Meadow area (Area 5) where there are stands of spruce, fir, pine, and aspen.  The species was said to be detected more often in the Hannagan Meadow area before the massive Wallow Fire in 2011.  The fire destroyed a lot of the Gray Jay's potential habitat.  There are two eBird records from Hannagan Campground in 2013: 31 August-1 September 2013 by Tad Lamb.

-Pinyon Jay (B):  Resident that is probably uncommon in areas dominated by pinyon-pine and scattered pine forest at grassland and open edges as well as rocky bluffs in Areas 4 and 5.

-Steller's Jay (B):  Resident that is common in coniferous and oak forests in Areas 2, 4, and 5.  Irregular winter movements may result in observations of Steller's Jays out of normal habitat in lower elevations. 

-Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay (B):  Resident that is common in areas with chaparral, scrub oak, pinyon-pine woodlands, edges of pine and oak forest in scrubby areas in Areas 2, 3, 4, and 5.

-Mexican Jay (B):  Resident that is common in oak forest as well as pine and oak woodlands throughout Area 2, Area 4, and the Upper Blue River area in Area 5.

-Clark's Nutcracker (B):  Resident that is uncommon in coniferous forests in elevations ranging from 7000' to above 9000'.  Hannagan Meadow (Area 5) is an excellent area to look.

-American Crow (B):  Resident that is probably uncommon to fairly common in the higher elevations of Area 5.  The species may move lower in elevation throughout the county in winter months irregularly. 

-Chihuahuan Raven (B):  Probably an uncommon resident.  Difficult to separate from Common Raven, listen for difference in calls and watch for size of ravens perched side-by-side (a single raven is not a good indicator).  Look in Area 1 in the agricultural fields and cottonwoods along the Gila River, as well as in the Chihuahuan desertscrub that is south of Duncan.

-Common Raven (B):  Resident that is very common in all areas and habitats of Greenlee County.

Larks

-Horned Lark (B):  Locally uncommon to common in agricultural fields, grassy areas, and grasslands in Greenlee County.  The species probably breeds in the grassland stretch mentioned in Area 4.

Swallows

-Northern Rough-winged Swallow (B):  Probably fairly common in Areas 1 and 3 along areas near fields and water.

-Purple Martin (B):  Probably fairly common in spring and summer in Area 5.  Look along rivers and at tanks and ponds that fall within open meadows.  Purple Martins like to nest in cavities on open and exposed snags.  Probably an uncommon migrant elsewhere in Greenlee County.

-Tree Swallow:  Probably fairly common in spring and fall as a migrant throughout the county.  Area 5 holds potential breeding habitat.

-Violet-green Swallow (B):  Very common in spring and summer at higher elevations in the county with coniferous, oak, and aspen forest, especially near water, tanks, ponds, and forest openings.  May be local at lower elevations.  Probably a fairly common migrant throughout Greenlee County.

-Bank Swallow:  Probably an uncommon spring and fall migrant throughout Greenlee County.

-Barn Swallow (B):  Very common in spring and summer in the southern half of Greenlee County.  Probably more local and fairly common in the northern half of Greenlee County.  Common spring and fall migrant.

-Cliff Swallow (B):  Probably locally common in Greenlee County during spring and summer along rivers and creeks that have mountain terrian or bridges nearby, where the species nests.  Probably a common spring and fall migrant.

Chickadees, Titmice, Verdin, and Bushtit

-Mountain Chickadee (B):  Resident that is common in coniferous and aspen forest in Areas 4 and 5.  This bird appears to be a winter visitor in the pine and oak forests lower in Area 4 as well as the Big Lue Mountains in Area 2.

-Juniper Titmouse (B):  Resident that is fairly common in habitat that contains juniper, which consists of juniper on chaparral slopes, stands of pinyon pine and juniper, and often mixed pine and oak forests.

-Bridled Titmouse (B):  Resident that is common in willow and cottonwood riparian forests along creeks and rivers, as well as pine and oak woodlands.

-Verdin (B):  Resident that is common in the lower elevations of Areas 1 and 3 in desert scrub and riparian areas.

-Bushtit (B):  Resident that is common in habitats with chaparral, juniper and scrub oak, and scrubby habitat within pine and oak woodland.

Nuthatches and Creepers

-Red-breasted Nuthatch (B):  Resident that is fairly common in mixed coniferous forests in the higher elevations of Areas 4 and 5.  This species invades lowlands every few years and they may very well show up in the lower elevations of Areas 1, 2, and 3 during fall and winter.

-White-breasted Nuthatch (B):  Resident that is common in coniferous and oak forests in Areas 2, 4, and 5.  Local in other places, mainly in winter when some individuals move to lower elevations.

-Pygmy Nuthatch (B):  Resident that is common in coniferous forests, especially those with ponderosa pine, in Areas 4 and 5.  Status unknown in Big Lue Mountains (Area 2), but probably an uncommon and local resident.

-Brown Creeper (B): Fairly common resident in high elevation coniferous forests of Areas 4 and 5, most common in stands where there are fir and spruce.  Birds move to lower elevations in pine and oak forest in winter, and may also be seen along cottonwood and riparian woodlands during winter.  Look in Areas 1, 2, and 3 for Brown Creeper in winter in Greenlee.

Dippers

-American Dipper (B):  Probably an uncommon and local resident in Area 5 along the Black and Blue Rivers.  Look for it perched on rocks or riverside vegetation. 

Wrens

-Rock Wren (B):  Common resident in rocky areas, bluffs, canyons, and desert terrain throughout Greenlee County except for the areas with the highest elevations. 

-Canyon Wren (B):  Common resident in rocky areas and bluffs, cliffs, canyons, and steep terrain in a variety of different elevations and habitats in Areas 2, 3, 4, and 5.

-House Wren (B):  Common in spring and summer in Areas 4 and 5 in high elevation forests where there are piles of wood and shrubby habitat for them to have cover for foraging.  In fall and winter, House Wrens are probably fairly common migrants and winter visitors in the lower half of Greenlee County in shrubby areas and woodpiles along edges of habitats and within riparian woodlands. 

-Marsh Wren:  Probably rare in Greenlee County, due to the lack of aquatic habitat that is surrounded by tall reeds that this species needs.  Fall and winter would be the best time to detect a Marsh Wren.  There is one record on eBird, which was one Marsh Wren southeast of Duncan (Area 1) on 13 April 2016 found by David Stejskal.

-Bewick's Wren(B):  Common in spring and summer in thick understory and vegetation within riparian woodlands, chaparral slopes, scrub oak, and pine and oak woodland throughout different Greenlee County areas.  The species moves to lower elevations in winter, and are still fairly common.

-Cactus Wren (B):  Probably an uncommon to fairly common resident in areas 1 and 3 in Chihuahuan desertscrub. 

Gnatcatchers and Kinglets

-Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (B):  Probably fairly common to common in pine/oak woodlands and in chaparral areas in spring and summer.  Probably fairly common in fall in winter in lower elevations such as willow and cottonwood woodlands.

-Black-tailed Gnatcatcher (B):  Common resident that is found in habitats that are usually directly associated with desert scrub in the southern half of Greenlee County.

-Golden-crowned Kinglet (B):  Fairly common to uncommon in spring and summer in the high elevations of the White Mountains (Area 5) in the spruce, fir, and pine stands near Hannagan Meadow.  In winter, birds move into lower pine and oak forests and sometimes into willow and cottonwood riparian stands below 4,000'. 

-Ruby-crowned Kinglet (B):  Fairly common in spring and summer in the high elevations of the White Mountains (Area 5) in the spruce, fir, and pine stands near Hannagan Meadow.  In fall and winter, Ruby-crowned Kinglets are very common migrants and winter visitors in a variety of habitats from desert vegetation up to pine and oak woodlands.

Thrushes

-Eastern Bluebird:  This species is of interest in Greenlee County.  Since 2009, there have been reports of Eastern Bluebirds during some winters in the fields near Duncan and Franklin (Area 1).  Most of these reports have been of a few birds if they are present, but on 29 November 2017, Gordon Karre and Tommy DeBardeleben had close to 20 birds, and David Stejskal had a total of 34 shortly after on 5 December 2017.  Jake Mohlmann, and John Yerger detected a few Eastern Bluebirds on 21 February 2009, and Mark Stevenson and Molly Pollock had 3 Eastern Bluebirds on 6 January 2010.  This species appears to be irregular in the agricultural areas of Duncan and Franklin, and in some winters, like November and December 2017, they may be irregularly common.  The Eastern Bluebirds detected here likely fall under the nominate and more widespread and brightly colored race of Eastern Bluebird that ranges widely across the eastern United States, which is Sialia sialis.  The Mexican race, also known as Azure Bluebird, Sialia fulva, isn't known to migrate outside of it's resident range. 

-Western Bluebird (B):  Common in spring and summer in the high elevation areas of the county within open areas adjacent to coniferous forests.  Common in fall and winter in pine and oak woodland down in elevation to 3,500' in open areas and riparian woodlands. 

-Mountain Bluebird (B):  Probably fairly common in spring and summer in the White Mountains (Area 5) where there are meadows, forest openings, and grassland.  Probably uncommon in winter in open areas such as agricultural fields, grasslands, and pinyon-juniper hillsides.

-Townsend's Solitaire (B):  Probably uncommon in spring and summer in the higher elevation forests of Greenlee County in the White Mountains (Area 5).  Probably uncommon in fall and winter in habitats that have surrounding juniper and chaparral slopes.

-Swainson's Thrush:  Probably an uncommon spring and fall migrant in a variety of different habitats in all elevations throughout Greenlee County.  Late May and early June is an excellent time to look for this species in riparian woodlands during it's spring migration.

-Hermit Thrush (B):  Common in spring and summer in the high elevation forests of Areas 4 and 5.  Common in fall and winter as a migrant and winter visitor in a variety of habitats in Greenlee County that include riparian corridors, areas with thick cover, and pine and oak woodlands.

-American Robin (B):  Common in spring and summer in high elevation forests of Areas 4 and 5, where they are usually seen in forest openings near or on the ground.  Common in fall and winter in a variety of habitats, especially where there is a food source in habitats such as trees with berries.

Thrashers and Mockingbirds

-Bendire's Thrasher:  Probably a local and rare resident in Chihuahuan desertscrub and semidesert grassland south of Duncan.  This bird was detected on surveys during the Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas.

-Curve-billed Thrasher (B):  Probably an uncommon resident in Chihuahuan desertscrub in Areas 1 and 3.  In Curve-billed Thrasher detections, the bird have appeared to belong to the palmeri group of Curve-billed Thrasher.  The Curve-billed Thrasher of the east, subspecies oberholseri, is worth listening and checking for.

-Crissal Thrasher (B):  Resident that is uncommon in shrubby and thick areas along riparian and agricultural zones, as well as chaparral dominated habitats in Areas 1, 2, 3, and the southern part of 4.

-Sage Thrasher:  Probably an uncommon to rare spring and fall migrant and winter visitor to Chihuahuan desertscrub, semidesert grassland, and chaparral slopes in Areas 1, 2, 3, and the southern part of 4.

-Northern Mockingbird (B):  Probably a common resident in urban areas such as Duncan, Franklin, Clifton, and Morenci.  Fairly common in open areas throughout the year in lower elevations, absent from high elevations in winter.

Starlings

-European Starling (B):  Common resident in urban and rural areas in Greenlee County.

Pipits

-American Pipit:  Probably fairly common spring and fall migrant and winter visitor in agricultural fields and grasslands in the county.

Waxwings

-Cedar Waxwing:  On average, probably a fairly common migrant and winter visitor to riparian areas and lines of trees that host fruit in the southern half of the county.

Silky Flycatchers

-Phainopepla (B):  Probably a fairly common resident in desert habitats in the lower half of Greenlee County.  This bird may also be present in spring and summer in chaparral dominated habitats, oak and juniper woodland, and occasionally pine and oak woodland as they make drastic seasonal movements into different habitats during breeding.

Olive Warbler

-Olive Warbler (B):  Probably an uncommon resident in mixed pine and oak woodlands in Areas 2, 4, and 5. 

Wood Warblers

-Northern Waterthrush:  Probably an annual but rare spring and fall migrant along creeks and rivers.  One eBird record from 24 April 2016 at the Blue River by Janine McCabe.  There have also been several sightings in spring and fall migrations along Lower Eagle Creek in previous years (found by Justin Jones). 

-Northern Parula:  Probably a rare but likely annual fall migrant and winter visitor.  Probably more casual in spring.  One record from Area 1 on 28 April 2007 by Troy Corman in census designated area of York north of Duncan.

-Orange-crowned Warbler (B):  Common spring and fall migrant, as well as winter visitor.  This warbler was detected in the White Mountains area (Area 5) during the Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas surveys in suitable breeding habitat within high elevation forests.  If found breeding, it is probably local and rare in spring and summer in the White Mountains.

-Lucy's Warbler (B):  Common in spring and summer in the southern half of Greenlee County in desert scrub and riparian areas that have surrounding mesquite habitat. 

-Nashville Warbler:  Probably an uncommon to rare spring migrant and fairly common fall migrant throughout Greenlee County, especially in riparian woodlands.

-Virginia's Warbler (B):  Fairly common in spring and summer in pine and oak woodlands in Areas 2, 4, and 5.

-MacGillivray's Warbler (B):  Probably fairly common in spring and summer in White Mountains (Area 5) along riparian thickets in high elevations along rivers and creeks.  Common spring and fall migrant in a variety of habitats that have dense and thick cover.

-Common Yellowthroat (B):  Probably an uncommon migrant in Greenlee County, as well as winter visitor, along rivers and creeks where there is dense habitat along the water to provide cover.  Probably breeds in riparian areas that have good surrounding vegetation near water source.

-American Redstart:  Probably an annual but rare spring and fall migrant, as well as winter visitor.  Lack of birding in Greenlee County leads to assumption.  One eBird record on 24 September 2011 from Gila Box NCA via Old Safford Bridge (Area 3) by Andrew Core, John Saba, William Sutton, and John Yerger on an Arizona Field Ornithologists Expedition.

-Yellow Warbler (B):  Probably a common spring and fall migrant throughout Greenlee County, especially in riparian woodlands.  In spring and summer, this warbler is very common in cottonwood and willow riparian woodlands along creeks and rivers at elevations from 3,500' to over 6,000'.

-Yellow-rumped Warbler (B):  Probably fairly common in spring and summer in the White Mountains (Area 5).  Abundant winter visitor in a variety of habitats in Greenlee County.

-Grace's Warbler (B):  Fairly common in spring and summer in mixed pine and oak forests, as well as solid ponderosa pine forests, in Areas 2, 4, and 5.

-Black-throated Gray Warbler (B)::  Fairly common in spring and summer in oak and juniper woodlands, as well as pine and oak woodlands.  Uncommon to fairly common spring migrant in Greenlee County in most habitats with the exception of the highest elevations, and probably a rare winter visitor in riparian woodlands of 4000' and below.

-Townsend's Warbler:  Probably a fairly common spring and fall migrant throughout Greenlee County, especially in high elevation forests. 

-Hermit Warbler:  Probably an uncommon spring and fall migrant throughout Greenlee County, most often found in higher elevation forests. 

-Wilson's Warbler:  Common spring and fall migrant throughout Greenlee County, especially in riparian woodlands.

-Red-faced Warbler (B):  Probably locally common in spring and summer in the higher elevation coniferous and oak forests of Areas 4 and 5, where this warbler prefers fir trees, especially in drainages, canyons, and thick stands of tall conifers. 

-Painted Redstart (B):  Probably locally common in spring and summer in mixed pine and oak forests in Areas 2, 4, and 5.  Rare spring and fall migrant in lower elevations, and possibly a rare winter visitor to riparian woodlands in winter in elevations below 4,000'. 

Towhees and Sparrows

-Cassin's Sparrow (B):  Based on eBird reports, probably uncommon in spring and summer in semidesert grassland and desert scrub habitats in Areas 1, 2, and 3.  In Areas 2 and 3, places to look would be Highway 78 (Area 2) east of Three Way, and Highway 191 (Area 3), west of Three Way, where there is good habitat for this species.

-Chipping Sparrow (B):  Probably common in spring and summer in clearings and open areas within conferous forests in Areas 4 and 5.  Probably a common migrant and winter visitor elsewhere in Greenlee.

-Black-chinned Sparrow (B):  Probably uncommon in spring and summer in chaparral associated habitats in Areas 2, 3, and 4. 

-Brewer's Sparrow:  Probably common in spring and fall migrations in brushy areas and desert scrub, and probably uncommon in winter in similar habitat.

-Black-throated Sparrow (B):  Probably a common resident in desert scrub habitat, as well as uncommon in spring and summer in higher desert, chaparral, and slopes with juniper.

-Lark Sparrow (B):  Probably fairly common in spring and summer in desert scrub, edges of semidesert grassland, and open clearings of oak, juniper, and pine forests.  Probably fairly common in fall and winter in similar habitats.

-Lark Bunting:  Probably an uncommon migrant and winter visitor to fields and open, brushy areas in Area 1.  Likely rare elsewhere in the county.

-Dark-eyed Junco (B):  "Red-backed" race is common in spring and summer in high elevation forests in the White Mountains (Area 5).  Common in Greenlee County in fall and winter in a variety of habitats, when numerous races/forms may be found that may include Red-backed, Gray-headed, Oregon, Slate-colored, Pink-sided, and possibly more.

-Yellow-eyed Junco:  Probably accidental, but low coverage of Greenlee County makes knowledge of status difficult.  One record, of a bird was found on 18 February 2017 just west of Granville Campground (Area 4) by Caleb Strand.  Joshua Smith and Tommy DeBardeleben were able to get photographs of the Junco for documentation after Caleb discovered it.  Worth searching for in future explorations.

-White-crowned Sparrow:  Extremely common from fall through mid-spring in shrubby and thick cover under stands of riparian forests, field edges, and also in desert scrub.  Is found in Areas 1 and 3, and lower elevations of Areas 2 and 4.

-Golden-crowned Sparrow:  Probably casual in late fall and winter, as there have been two records in Duncan (Area 1):  One on 17 February 2007 Troy Corman, Marceline Vandewater, and Carol Beardmore north of Duncan, and also on 29 November 2017 by Gordon Karre and Tommy DeBardeleben at Duncan Birding Trail.  Look for this sparrow in midst of large White-crowned Sparrow flocks in brushy and shrubby areas along rivers and edges of different habitats.

-White-throated Sparrow:  Probably a rare but annual late fall and winter visitor in small numbers in similar habitats with White-crowned Sparrow.  Scan through White-crowned Sparrow flocks and underneath thick vegetation for foraging birds.

-Sagebrush Sparrow:  Probably uncommon in fall and winter in desert scrub habitats in Area 1, south of Duncan.

-Vesper Sparrow (B):  Probably fairly common in spring and summer in grassland habitats in Areas 4 and 5.  Probably fairly common in the county in fall and winter in fields, edges of open areas, etc.

-Savannah Sparrow:  Probably fairly common to common in fall and winter in fields, grassy areas, and edges of open areas in Greenlee County.

-Song Sparrow (B):  Common in fall and winter along riparian areas, where the fallax and montana/merrilli subspecies have been recorded, probably especially in elevations under 5,000.  Also in shrubby areas.  Probably uncommon and local in spring and summer along rivers and major creeks throughout Greenlee County.

-Lincoln's Sparrow (B):  Possibly uncommon and local in spring and summer in the White Mountains (Area 5) in willow thickets along the Black River and various creeks that are high in elevation.  Common in fall and winter in the southern half of Greenlee County in thick habitat within riparian woodlands, brushy areas, etc. 

-Swamp Sparrow:  Probably a rare but annual fall migrant and winter visitor in dense vegetation along rivers and creeks, probably most likely in Areas 1 and 3.

-Canyon Towhee (B):  Resident that is common in upper desert habitats, chaparral associations, rocky bluffs and other rocky areas, mountanious terrian, etc. at elevations from roughly 3,500' to 7000' in areas 2, 3, 4, and 5.

-Abert's Towhee (B):  Resident that is common in desert scrub habitat and in thick, wooded understory of riparian woodlands of Area 1.  Probably less common but still relatively common in Area 3's desert scrub habitat.

-Rufous-crowned Sparrow (B):  Resident that is probably uncommon to fairly common in chaparral areas, rocky bluffs and other rocky habitats, and scrubby habitat.  Such habitat is found adjacent to a variety of habitats that range in elevation from 3,500' to 7,000'.

-Green-tailed Towhee (B):  Probably a fairly common to common spring and fall migrant throughout Greenlee County in thick vegetation and brushy areas.  More local but probably fairly common in the high elevations of the White Mountains (Area 5) in moist thickets within clearings near tanks, rivers, and creeks, as well as in burned areas with fallen timber for cover.

-Spotted Towhee (B):  Very common resident that is found as high as pine and oak forests in the county that have dense understory.  On average this species is widespread and very common in any habitats that contain chaparral and scrub oak.  In winter, some Spotted Towhees move to lower elevations and can be found in brushy areas with thick cover at edges of open areas or within riparian woodlands.

Chats

-Yellow-breasted Chat (B):  Common in spring and summer in riparian woodlands along rivers and creeks throughout Greenlee County.  Absent in the higher elevations, but may be found at the Blue River in elevations roughly around 6,500'. 

Tanagers, Cardinals, Grosbeaks, and Buntings

-Hepatic Tanager (B):  Fairly common in spring and summer in mixed pine and oak forests in areas 2, 4, and 5. 

-Summer Tanager (B):  Common in spring and summer in cottonwood and willow forests along riparian areas of creeks and rivers.  These habitats are found in elevations from 3,500' to 6,500' in all areas in Greenlee County.

-Western Tanager (B):  Common in spring and summer in coniferous, oak, and aspen forests, where it may be found in pine and oak at elevations of roughly 6000' and all the way up to mixed conifer and aspen above 9000'.  Common spring and fall migrant throughout Greenlee County.

-Northern Cardinal (B):  Resident that is common in desert scrub, brushy areas within urban and rural areas, mesquite woodland, and cottonwood and riparian forests in Areas 1 and 3.  This bird typically stays in elevations below 4,000'. 

-Pyrrhuloxia (B):  Resident that is uncommon in desert scrub, semidesert grassland with scattered mesquite, mesquite woodlands, and brushy areas at the edges of fields, deserts, and riparian areas.  Look for this bird in Areas 1, 2, and 3.

-Rose-breasted Grosbeak:  Probably a rare but annual spring and fall migrant, with the month of May being the likely time to find this species.  May be found in a variety of habitats, but look for feeding flocks of grosbeaks and tanagers.  Three eBird records:  one from Blackjack Campground 17 May 2014 by Tim Marquardt, one from Duncan on 9 May 2012 by Deborah Hileman, and one from Duncan Birding Trail and East Avenue in Duncan on 13 May 2017 by Gordon Karre and Tommy DeBardeleben.

-Black-headed Grosbeak (B):  Common spring and fall migrant throughout Greenlee County.  Common in spring and summer in higher elevations with conifer and oak forests in Areas 4 and 5, especially in areas with canyons and drainages.

-Blue Grosbeak (B):  Common in spring and summer in riparian woodlands in Areas 1, 3, 4, and 5.  Elevations where this bird is present range from 3,500' to 6,500'. 

-Lazuli Bunting:  Probably a common spring and fall migrant along brushy and weedy areas at field edges and riparian woodlands, and along thick vegetation along rivers and creeks.

-Indigo Bunting (B):  Probably an uncommon spring and fall migrant along brushy and weedy areas at field edges and riparian woodlands, and along thick vegetation along rivers and creeks.  This species is probably rare and local in spring and summer along riparian corridors in lower and higher elevations.

-Painted Bunting:  One eBird record from 21 August 2016 on the Duncan Birding Trail (Area 1) by Deborah Hileman.  Probably casual, but may be rare or rare but annual in small numbers in late summer and fall in weedy and brushy areas that are often adjacent to riparian woodlands.  In southeastern Arizona, Painted Buntings are annual in small numbers in August and September in such habitats, and counts often include multiple birds.

-Dickcissel:  A Dickcissel was found and photographed by Robert Shantz in the Stagecoach Loop in Duncan (Area 1) on 6,7, and 9 September 2005.  Dickcissel is rare but annual in fall in Arizona in small numbers in weedy grassy habitats such as woodland edges, field edges, and tall grass areas.  The Stagecoach Loop where Robert photographed the Dickcissel,which has good habitat for Dickcissel and attractive clumps of weeds/tall grasses.  The Greenlee County status of this bird is probably similar to that of the rest of Arizona, rare but annual in fall, casual and accidental at other times.

Blackbirds, Orioles, Meadowlarks, and Allies

-Yellow-headed Blackbird:  Probably uncommon spring through fall in the agricultural fields and farms in Area 1 in Duncan and Franklin, and further north to York. 

-Western Meadowlark (B):  Probably fairly common in spring and summer in grasslands of the White Mountains (Area 5).  Probably common in fall and winter in fields, farmlands, open areas, and semidesert grassland in Areas 1, 2, and 3.

-Eastern Meadowlark (B):  Probably uncommon in spring and summer in the grasslands of the White Mountains (Area 5).  Probably an uncommon resident in semidesert grasslands south of Duncan and Franklin (Area 1).  Probably fairly common in fall and winter in fields and farmlands in Area 1 in Duncan and Franklin, and further north to York.  Eastern Meadowlarks in Greenlee County all likely belong to the southwestern Lilian's subspecies. 

-Hooded Oriole (B):  Probably fairly common to common in spring and summer along riparian woodlands that range from 3,500' to about 6,000' in elevation.  Such woodlands are dominated by cottonwood and willow and are along rivers and major creeks. 

-Bullock's Oriole (B):  Probably fairly common to common in spring and summer along riparian corridors with willow and cottonwood usually dominating the different tree species.  They can often be found in groves of mesquite trees that are close to stands of riparian trees.  This bird is found along rivers and creeks throughout Greenlee County in elevations from 3500' to 6500'.  In upper elevations, they will use pine and oak forests that are close to riparian areas.  A good example of this would be the pine and oak forest next to the upper reaches of the Blue River.

-Scott's Oriole (B):  Probably uncommon to fairly common in spring and summer at different elevations roughly from 4,000 to 6,500' that contain chaparral, juniper, and scattered oak habitat.  Areas 2, 3, 4, and 5 hold the best habitat for this species.

-Red-winged Blackbird (B):  Probably common throughout the year in Greenlee County, mainly in the southern half of the county in agricultural fields, farmlands, and rivers. 

-Bronzed Cowbird (B):  Probably local and uncommon to rare in spring and summer in Areas 1 and 3 in urban areas, grassy yards within neighborhoods, farms, agricultural fields, and along riparian corridors (especially where there are mesquite bosques). 

-Brown-headed Cowbird (B):  Common in spring and summer throughout Greenlee County, where it is a common parasite to many bird species.  Probably fairly common in the southern half of Greenlee County in urban, farm, and agricultural areas in fall and winter.

-Brewer's Blackbird (B):  Probably fairly common in spring and summer in the White Mountains (Area 5) in grassland areas, open clearings, and near ponds and tanks.  If there are human developments nearby, Brewer's Blackbirds are much more likely to be present.  Probably common in fall and winter in Area 1, in urban areas, fields, farms, and lawns.

-Great-tailed Grackle (B):  Very common resident in urban areas in Greenlee County, especially in Duncan and Franklin (Area 1), and Clifton and Morenci (Area 3).

Finches and Goldfinches

-House Finch (B):  Resident that is very common in most habitats and areas throughout Greenlee County.

-Cassin's Finch:  Few records of this species in Greenlee, but likely an irregular fall and winter visitor to a variety of habitats. 

-Red Crossbill (B):  Very irregular species.  May breed in coniferous forests one year, and may be absent the next.  The spruce, fir, and pine forests of the White Mountains (Area 5) hold the best bet for finding breeding crossbills.  Red Crossbills are also very irregular in lowland movements.  They may be found in pine and oak woodlands as well as within urban areas and riparian areas in the lowest elevations of the county.  Red Crossbills have many different subspecies and "types", which may eventually lead to being different species.  If you hear Red Crossbills, it helps to get sound recordings of them to better assist in identifying the type of Red Crossbill it is.

-Pine Siskin (B):  Common in the higher elevations of Greenlee County in Areas 4 and 5, especially within coniferous forests, where it is mainly resident.  This species is very irregular and often moves into lower elevations in fall and winter based on food availability. 

-Lesser Goldfinch (B):  Probably common in spring and summer in a variety of habitats in Greenlee County, especially riparian zones, in all birding areas.  Lesser Goldfinches like open areas with taller grass where they can feed on seeds.  Probably fairly common in fall and winter in the lower elevations of Greenlee County in open areas with tall weeds, as well as riparian woodlands and urban areas.

-American Goldfinch:  Probably uncommon in fall and winter in lower riparian zones with cottonwoods and willows, open areas with tall weeds, brushy field edges, etc.

-Evening Grosbeak (B):  Evening Grosbeaks were found in the White Mountain region (Area 5) of Greenlee County during the Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas surveys.  There aren't any eBird records for this species.  Keep this bird in mind when birding coniferous and aspen forests within the White Mountains.  Evening Grosbeaks make irruptive movements during fall and winter and may show up in a variety of habitats that include mixed pine and oak woodlands, urban areas with interesting trees, and willow/cottonwood riparian forests.

Old World Sparrows

-House Sparrow (B):  Very common resident in urban and agricultural areas, towns, and farmlands throughout Greenlee County. 

 

End of bird list.  265 species.  Last modified by Tommy DeBardeleben January 2018.

 

 

 

SOURCES CITED

 

-Corman, Troy E., and Cathryn Wise-Gervais.  Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas.  Univ. of New Mexico Press, 2005

 

-Corman, Troy. AZFO Field Expedition Highlights - Greenlee/Graham Counties, February 21-22 2009.Www.azfo.org, Arizona Field Ornithologists, Feb. 2009, azfo.org/events/custom/GrahamGreenlee2009.html.

 

--  -Corman, Troy. AZFO Field Expedition highlights - Greenlee/Graham Cos. April 28-29, 2007.Www.azfo.org, Arizona Field Ornithologists, Apr. 2007, azfo.org/events/custom/GrahamGreenlee2007.html.

C  

-    -Corman, Troy. AZFO Field Expedition highlights - Greenlee/Graham Cos. February 17-18, 2007.Www.azfo.org, Arizona Field Ornithologists, Feb. 2007, azfo.org/events/custom/GrahamGreenleeWin2007.html.

 

-  -EBird Range Map.Www.ebird.org/, Audubon and Cornell Lab of Ornithology, ebird.org/ebird/map/.Great for seeing eBird entries across Greenlee County to get ideas on what a bird's status is in the County.

 

-"Explore Data:  Greenlee County".  EBird, Audubon and Cornell Lab of Ornithology, www.ebird.org/

 

-Hough, Eric. Big Lue Mountains & Gila River (Greenlee County) May 17-18, 2014.Www.azfo.org, Arizona Field Ornithologists, May 2014, azfo.org/events/documents/BigLueMntsGilaRiver2014.html.

 

 

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Birding in Maricopa County

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Birding in Arizona's White Mountains

An online guide to Birding in Arizona's White Mountains